The use of audio sensors for soldier systems is examined in detail. We propose two applications, speech recognition and speaker verification. These technologies provide two functions for a soldier system. First, the soldier has hands-free operation of his system via voice command and control. Second, identify can be verified for the soldier to maintain the security integrity of the soldier system. A low complexity, high accuracy technology based upon averaging a discriminative classifier over time is presented and applied to these processes. For speaker verification of the soldier, the classifier is used in a text-prompted mode to authenticate the identity of the soldier. Once the soldier has been authenticated, the interface can then be navigated via voice commands in a speaker independent manner. By using an artificial neural network structure, a high degree of accuracy can be obtained with low complexity. We show the resulting accuracy of the speaker verification technology. We also detail the simulation of the speech recognition under various noise conditions.
The purpose of an electronic Compass and Vertical Angle Measurement (CVAM) sensor is to measure the attitude/orientation (i.e., azimuth, elevation, and cant; in terms of true North and local vertical) of the object to which it is attached. This measurement of orientation enables the addition of valuable functionality to the soldier system. Currently the Force XXI Land Warrior (FXXI LW) program is funding the development of a CVAM and its integration onto the Integrated Helmet Assembly Subassembly (IHAS) of the Land Warrior system. The primary intent of the FXXI LW effort is to produce a Head Orientation Sensor (HOS) that, when combined with data from a corresponding Weapon Orientation Sensor, enables a new function for the Land Warrior system known as Rapid Target Acquisition (RTA). The RTA functionality is only one of a set of soldier functions enabled by the CVAM. It is the objective of this paper to describe the CVAM/HOS and its various applications within the soldier systems. The introduction of the paper provides the history and background of the CVAM and its operation. The body of the paper is first focused on an overview of CVAM operation and the means by which it is to be integrated into various systems (to include helmets, advanced weapon sights, chemical sensing platforms, etc.). This will include the unique needs of the sensor such as calibration and parameter adjustment, and its key features that make it excel in its operational environment. The remainder of the paper focuses on the application of the CVAM to soldier systems; the benefits that CVAM offers to existing functions and the new functionality it enables. Various soldier functions and capabilities (new and pre-existing) are described. The paper concludes with a description of the status of the effort. This includes the developmental status of the CVAM/HOS, the validation of its design, and its integration into the IHAS and other weapon and sensing platforms.
This paper presents the design and implementation of the laser sensor system for the 21st century soldier under the U.S. Army's Land Warrior program. The system, a low cost, light weight, non-developmental item (NDI), meets the current requirements and provides for future growth to support training and combat identification (ID) functions. This totally integrated laser sensor system has been implemented in an Integrated Product Team (IPT) environment using all commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies and components. The paper also discuss how the baseline technology for the laser sensor developed under Tracor Aerospace's Independent Research and Development (IRAD) projects was transitioned for the Land Warrior applications.
Three different Combat ID systems for the Dismounted Soldier are described and areas of commonality and differences are noted. CIDDS (Combat ID for Dismounted Soldiers) is a complete Stand-Alone system for non-Land Warrior equipped soldier's. To the weapon, it adds a laser interrogator that produces a Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement Systems (MILES) like pulse coded waveform and a RF receiver. To the soldiers helmet, it adds four laser detectors and an RF transmitter that uses frequency diversity and TDMA to respond. Land Warrior Combat ID, being developed on the Force XXI Land Warrior program, adds a similar laser interrogator to the weapon but uses existing laser detectors on the helmet. Detection of a laser interrogation automatically causes a RF reply via the Land Warrior Soldier Radio (LWSR) that operates in the 1.8 GHz frequency range using a TDMA format. Helicopter to Dismounted Soldier ID (HDSID) uses the SIngle Channel Ground Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) SIP+ radios, operating in the 30 to 88 MHz band, for both interrogation and reply. The SINCGARS SIP+ ground receivers interrupt normal voice or data transmission/reception every second for a very short interval and switch to receive on the 'Interrogation' net. Up to three helicopters can make interrogations during any one-second interval. CIDDS and Land Warrior CID are presently in development, while HDSID is a recently completed study.
The Technology Advanced Mini-Eyesafe Rangefinder (TAMER) module is a portable, lightweight (7 lbs), hand-held, target determination system. This rapid prototype program involved the integration of a Motorola 68360 microprocessor, electronic compass, laser range finder, GPS, 4 PCMCIA expansion slots, 0.7-inch micro display, digital camera, floating point unit, and various communications interfaces. The CPU computes an absolute target position based on laser range to target, C/VAM azimuth and inclination inputs, and absolute GPS position. This target position is automatically formatted into a standard military surveillance report and stored in local non- volatile memory. The operator can attach to a SINCGARS radio or to any RS232 compatible system (e.g., cellular telephone). To facilitate the above functionality, the TAMER system utilizes various power saving strategies including software- geared power reduction, power supply configuration, external device integration, and incorporation of low-power ICs. Additionally, TAMER utilizes state-of-the-art digital image compression technology. This custom image coder is based on wavelet decomposition and trellis-coded quantization (TCQ). The algorithm enables TAMER to transmit useful imagery over its severely disadvantaged wireless link.
Development of low-cost lightweight thermal sensors necessitates the re-evaluation of detection, classification and recognition criteria as applied to human performance with thermal imaging systems. The need exists to assess spatial and motion characteristics of man targets, rather than vehicle targets, and how these differing characteristics affect human perception and performance models. Higher order discriminations, such as determining activities and objects being carried are useful in determining range performance of specific sensors, and reflect the needs of the man-portable sensor user.
The Integrated Sight (IS) is a Technology Demonstration program within the Force XXI Land Warrior Program. Like the other Force XXI Land Warrior components, the IS is a candidate for future technology insertion into the Land Warrior (LW) program. The IS integrates an uncooled thermal imager, eye- safe laser rangefinder, electronic compass, CCD camera and infrared laser pointer into a single lightweight sight. It can mount on weapons or be used in a handheld or tripod mode. The functionality of the IS provides the fighting soldier with the ability to acquire targets during daylight, darkness, adverse weather, and through battlefield obscurants to provide target position data (azimuth and range) for indirect fire. Standardized interfaces enable digital target location data and imagery to be transmitted to and from the LW computer/radio subsystem (CRS). By integrating the sensors into a single unit, the IS offers reductions in weight, power, and size which is expected to improve the LW soldier's fightability. The impact of sensor integration on the LW soldier's tasks will be evaluated during Force XXI Land Warrior testing. The IS is being developed jointly by Raytheon Texas Instruments Systems (RTIS), the U.S. Army CECOM RDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate, and the U.S. Army Soldier Systems command. This paper provides a comparative assessment of the IS and the LW baseline Weapon Subsystem, and outlines the expected improvements that the IS provides the fighting soldier.
This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.
The Man-Portable Networked Sensor System (MPNSS), with its baseline sensor suite of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder, functions in a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of security operations and other tactical missions. While first developed as a man-portable prototype, these sensor packages can also be deployed on UGVs and UAVs, and a copy of this package been demonstrated flying on the Sikorsky Cypher VTOL UAV in counterdrug and MOUNT scenarios. The system makes maximum use of COTS components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. This paper will discuss the technical issues involved in: (1) system integration using COTS components and emerging bus standards, (2) flexible networking for a scalable system, and (3) the human interface designed to maximize information presentation to the warfighter in battle situations.