15 March 1998 Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method
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Abstract
An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of ultrasonic images formed using the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method on incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work being to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. The analysis uses TOFD scans as input to a filtering and 'window' based variance operator for the segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region. A suite of pc based software and a high temperature TOFD data acquisition system have been benchmarked through a series of demonstration trials on both 80mm thick carbon steel submerged arc welded testpieces, and 25mm thick carbon steel tungsten inert gas welded testpieces. The range of intentionally implanted defects, from root cracks to lack of side wall fusion, were detected with an overall accuracy of 79 percent on a data set of 174 defects on scans performed at 10-90 percent weld completion.
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Shaun W. Lawson, Shaun W. Lawson, Gary R. Bonser, Gary R. Bonser, } "Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method", Proc. SPIE 3399, Process Control and Sensors for Manufacturing, (15 March 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.302549; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.302549
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