23 September 1998 Diffraction-limited gradient-index (GRIN) microlenses with high numerical apertures produced by silver ion exchange in glass: diffusion modeling and process optimization
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Abstract
Cylindrical and rod gradient-index lenses with numerical apertures of 0.5 are produced by silver ion exchange in a sodium-aluminosilicate glass. Choosing the appropriate glass composition enables the generation of refractive index changes of 0.145 in the glass without coloration in the visible range. Diffraction-limited optical performance of lenses of up to 1.3 mm in thickness or diameter is achieved by ion exchange modeling which comprises the following steps: (1) The concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient of the glass is experimentally determined by the Boltzmann- Matano method, (2) Process control is provided by the measured dopant concentration/refractive index relation and the glass/salt equilibrium dependence, (3) The ion exchange process is optimized by solving the non-linear diffusion equation for two steps under different boundary conditions, (4) Diffraction-limited lenses up to numerical apertures of 0.5 are generated by applying the optimized process parameters to the ion exchange.
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Bernhard Messerschmidt, Bernhard Messerschmidt, Ulf Possner, Ulf Possner, Albrecht von Pfeil, Albrecht von Pfeil, Torsten Possner, Torsten Possner, } "Diffraction-limited gradient-index (GRIN) microlenses with high numerical apertures produced by silver ion exchange in glass: diffusion modeling and process optimization", Proc. SPIE 3424, Inorganic Optical Materials, (23 September 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.323759; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.323759
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