30 October 1998 Handheld directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real time
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Abstract
Many applications require quantitative measurements of surface light scattering, including quality control on production lines, inspection of painted surfaces, inspection of field repairs, etc. Instruments for measuring surface scattering typically fall into two main categories, namely bidirectional reflectometers, which measure the angular distribution of scattering, and hemispherical directional reflectometers, which measure the total scattering into the hemisphere above the surface. Measurement of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the greatest insight into how light is scattered from a surface. Measurements of BRDF, however, are typically very lengthy measurements taken by moving a source and detector to map the scattering. Since BRDF has four angular degrees of freedom, such measurements can require hours to days to complete. Instruments for measuring BRDF are also typically laboratory devices, although a field- portable bi-directional reflectometer does exist. Hemispherical directional reflectance (HDR) is a much easier measurement to make, although care must be taken to use the proper methodology when measuring at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometer, since integrating spheres (typically used to make such measurements) are very energy inefficient and lose their integrating properties at very long wavelengths. A few field- portable hemispherical directional reflectometers do exist, but typically measure HDR only at near-normal angles. Boeing Defense and Space Group and Surface Optics Corporation, under a contract from the Air Force Research Laboratory, have developed a new hand-held instrument capable of measuring both BRDF and HDR using a unique, patented angular imaging technique. A combination of an hemi-ellipsoidal mirror and an additional lens translate the angular scatter from a surface into a two-dimensional spatial distribution, which is recorded by an imaging array. This configuration fully maps the scattering from a half-hemisphere above the surface with more than 30,000 angularly-resolved points and update rates to 60 measurements per second. The instrument then computes HDR from the measured BDR. For ease of use, the instrument can also compare both the BRDF and HDR to preset limits, generating a Pass/Fail indicator for HDR and a high-acceptable-low image display of BRDF. Beam incidence elevation is variable from normal incidence ((theta) equals 0 degrees) to 5 degrees off grazing ((theta) equals 85 degrees), while scattering is measured to nearly 90 degrees off normal. Such capability is extremely important for any application requiring knowledge of surface appearance at oblique viewing angles. The current instrument operates over the range of 3 micrometer to 12 micrometer, with extension into the visible band possible.
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Phillip R. Mattison, Phillip R. Mattison, Mark S. Dombrowski, Mark S. Dombrowski, James M. Lorenz, James M. Lorenz, Keith J. Davis, Keith J. Davis, Harley C. Mann, Harley C. Mann, Philip Johnson, Philip Johnson, Bryan Foos, Bryan Foos, } "Handheld directional reflectometer: an angular imaging device to measure BRDF and HDR in real time", Proc. SPIE 3426, Scattering and Surface Roughness II, (30 October 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.328461; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.328461
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