The physical properties of diamond represent in very many cases an extreme. Consequently it is predicted that diamond may be an excellent material to use in many applications. One of these is in intense X-ray fluxes such as produced by modern synchrotron sources. In this paper the implications in deploying diamond for such purposes are addressed. This includes a consideration of the nature of natural diamond, and in particular its characteristic defects. Progress in attempts to emulate Nature in diamond genesis makes available to us man-made diamond produced at high temperature and high pressure: such material is considered as an alternative to the natural form for diamond targets. In recent times man-made diamond has been produced by chemical vapor deposition: the characteristics of this type of diamond are identified. In regard to the preparation of the actual target, three areas are considered, the 'thick' diamond target, the 'thin' diamond target, and the 'composite' diamond target. Traditional methods are described for the preparation of thick diamonds, while new approach based on amorphizing layer of diamond in the prepared stone at a predetermined depth, which can be etched away releasing the superficial layer of undamaged diamond. Some applications of diamond targets are presented.