23 October 1998 Highly birefringent neutrocyanine dyes for photorefractive polymers
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Photorefractive (PR) figures-of-merit (FOMs) were determined for a series of donor-acceptor substituted methine dyes by electrooptical absorption measurements (EOAM) in dioxane solution. EOAM yield the transition dipole moment (mu) ag, the ground state dipole moment (mu) ag and the change of the dipole moment upon optical excitation (Delta) (mu) within the intense charge transfer (CT) band of the dyes. These results allow us to estimate the PR FOMs of the dyes by using a two- level model. The dye structures were based on the strong acceptor unit 1-butyl-4-methyl-2, 6-dioxo-1,2,5,6- tetrahydro-pyridine-3-carbonitrile which was combined with donor units of increasing strength. The neutrocyanine dyes obtained cover the whole range of possible CT behavior: dyes with weaker donors exhibit large positive dipole difference, dyes with stronger donors reach the cyanine limit, while the strongest donors yield dyes beyond the cyanine limit. Optimized PR FOMs were obtained near or somewhat beyond the cyanine limit. PR polymers based upon optimized structures exhibited unprecedented refractive index modulations and gain coefficients.
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Ruediger W. Wortmann, Ruediger W. Wortmann, Frank Wuerthner, Frank Wuerthner, A. Sautter, A. Sautter, Katarzyna Lukaszuk, Katarzyna Lukaszuk, R. Matschiner, R. Matschiner, Klaus Meerholz, Klaus Meerholz, } "Highly birefringent neutrocyanine dyes for photorefractive polymers", Proc. SPIE 3471, Xerographic Photoreceptors and Organic Photorefractive Materials IV, (23 October 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.328173; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.328173

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