29 October 1998 Enhanced second-order effect in fullerene-doped glass
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Fullerene (C60) was doped into porous Corning Vycor glass host while preserving its second order susceptibility. The range of loading factor is from 2 by 10E16 fullerene molecules/g of glass to 2 by 10E17 molecules/g. The susceptibility of the fullerene is substantially enhanced from the thin film value of 10E-15 esu, as reported in the literature. The observed second harmonic signal showed a broad spectrum similar to that of the thin film as the transition is vibration-assisted. The second harmonic signal was excited with the fundamental of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Signals from those high loading factor samples that are oriented at a certain angle relative to the beam are comparable to that of powdered LiNbO3. This geometry- related enhancement is interpret as a quasi phase-matching enhancement resulted from the observed birefringence. This birefringence originating from the C60/Vycor interaction within the nanopores and nanochannels is enhanced over that of the glass alone. Loaded glass samples of 2-mm thickness showed a weak absorption in the visible region but good transmission in the IR. No thermal degradation was observed after irradiating the samples with the Nd:YAG laser for 2000 seconds at 1 kHz repetition rate pulses with a power input density of Mw/cm2.
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Peter K. Wong, Tak D. Cheung, Harry D. Gafney, Dehipawalag Sunil, "Enhanced second-order effect in fullerene-doped glass", Proc. SPIE 3474, Second-Order Organic Nonlinear Optics, (29 October 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.328578; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.328578

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