The ground electronic state of even such simple atoms as those of alkali elements has the set of sublevels. These sublevels are hyperfine (HF) components and magnetic sublevels. The collisions with particles of nonmagnetic buffer gas or even with walls (when walls have proper coating) do not mix practically the populations of ground state HF sublevels, if the orbital moment of electrons in the ground state is equal to zero. Due to this reason these sublevels may be extremely long lived. Because of this, for instance, the so-called effects of optical orientation and optical pumping are apparent in atoms of alkali metals. The radiation can pump practically all the atoms (with which there is effective interaction) to a single HF component. In a situation in which optical pumping is a minor effect, the monochromatic absorption line consists of separate lines corresponding to intra-atomic transitions. The optical pumping is not significant, for example, if the radiation intensity is so low that now pumping between HF sublevels occurs in the time it takes the atom to traverse the light beam. Under the conditions of optical pumping and when other nonlinear effects are present, the absorption line profile can undergo considerable alteration. Many theoretical and experimental investigations have been done in the laser spectroscopy of resonant transitions of atoms (atoms of alkali metals) under the conditions of optical pumping within ground state HF structure. A characteristic feature of all such investigations is the velocity-selective excitation of absorbing atoms. Also, as a rule, the value of HF splitting is not very big in comparison to Doppler broadening in these experiments. Under such conditions, the absorption spectra consists of Doppler- broadened lines with nonlinear resonances, which emerge when two fields of different frequencies or different propagation directions are employed. When only one monochromatic traveling wave is employed, optical pumping leads to formation of a single smooth absorption line occupying a position between the resonant transitions frequencies associated with HF components. As HF splitting grows, the line profile remains smooth, its width is approximately equal to the size of the HF splitting. The strength of the optical pumping from one ground state HF component to another is greater for greater HF splitting in comparison to the Doppler width. In this regard, Cs and Rb are the most typical of the alkali atoms (the HF splitting exceeds the Doppler width by a factor close to 20). This is the qualitative picture of the absorption line profile (particularly for a monochromatic radiation) under the conditions of optical pumping between the HF sublevels of the electronic ground state, this qualitative picture had formed by now.