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4 December 1998 Physical surface effects of Ti:LiNbO3 diffusion
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Titanium (Ti) diffusion into lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is often used to define waveguides for integrated optics devices which are now of considerable commercial importance. I report here on changes in the surface shape caused by titanium diffusion for fabricating (LiNbO3) integrated optical devices. I found that the processing leaves surface ridges whose height and shape depend on mass flow of lithium niobate, thickness of titanium, hydrogen content of diffusion atmosphere, and time at temperature. I also describe the surface effects of a reaction between LiNbO3 and quartz (silicon). To my knowledge the effects reported here have never before been reported in the open literature.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Wiley K. Smith "Physical surface effects of Ti:LiNbO3 diffusion", Proc. SPIE 3491, 1998 International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology III: Closing the Gap between Theory, Development, and Applications, (4 December 1998);

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