14 December 1998 Use of global navigation satellite systems for the atmospheric calibration of radar altimeters
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We have analyzed international GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS) data and GPS/MET occultation data with the GIPSY-OASIS II package and our tomographic software to study the ionospheric electronic content. During the period of February 20, 21 and 23, 1997, when AS was off, IGS permanent network data as well as GPS/MET used to extract sub- TOPEX/POSEIDON Total Electron Content (TEC) fields. The resulting global maps of the ionosphere were compared against TOPEX/POSEIDON ionospheric correction data showing good agreement. We emphasize that delays produced in the GPS signal above TOPEX/POSEIDON's orbit can be a source of bias in TEC estimates, and that techniques which are able to discriminate vertically the ionospheric electron content, such as the one described here, are required. We show that tomography improves TEC estimation below the radar altimeter on board TOPEX/POSEIDON by accounting correctly for the protonospheric contribution of the GPS delays. Other approaches which exist for estimating TEC are discussed and compared. Our results suggest the feasibility of absolute ionospheric calibration of Radar Altimeters using the tomographic technique described here.
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Estel Cardellach, G. Ruffini, Alejandro Flores, Lidia Cucurull, A. Rius, "Use of global navigation satellite systems for the atmospheric calibration of radar altimeters", Proc. SPIE 3495, Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere III, (14 December 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.332705; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.332705

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