20 November 1998 Scattering from bare soils: C-band multipolarization scatterometer measurements
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Multi-angle, multi-polarization C-band backscattering measurements were performed over selected bare soil areas. To perform these measurements, an FM-CW radar has been designed and assembled. This device has the capability of resolving independent samples within the antenna footprint area, thus allowing range discrimination and improving the signal statistics. Two areas with different degrees of roughness and dielectric constants were selected and set up. Co-polarized backscattering coefficients were measured for incidence angles between 23 degrees and 60 degrees. To perform a model analysis of the backscattering properties, 'ground truth' data, including surface roughness profiles and soil moisture values (directly related to dielectric constant) were also collected. The 'classical' parameters, used to describe surface roughness, showed a wide spreading. This evidence and the data resulting from ground truth campaigns over many European test sites suggested an alternative description of surface roughness, based on the self-similarity (fractal) properties. The surfaces have therefore been described as fBm (Fractional Brownian Motion) processes, and their backscattering response has been theoretically modeled by a numerical simulation (in 3-D in order to also take into account anisotropy effects) in Kirchhoff approximation. The experimental data have been analyzed with both asymptotic models (IEM) considering a classical statistical description, and with the numerical simulation applied to fBm surfaces.
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Domenico Casarano, G. Buono, F. Paparella, Francesco Posa, Vincenzo Sabatelli, "Scattering from bare soils: C-band multipolarization scatterometer measurements", Proc. SPIE 3497, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques, (20 November 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.331362; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.331362

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