Inflight experiment of Modular Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (MAIS) and ground-based measurements using GER MARK-V spectroradiometer simultaneously with the MAIS overpass were performed during Autumn 1995 at the semiarid area of Inner Mongolia, China. Based on these measurements and MAIS image data, we designed a method for the radiometric calibration of MAIS sensor using 6S and LOWTRAN 7 codes. The results show that the uncertainty of MAIS calibration is about 8% in the visible and near infrared wavelengths (0.4 - 1.2 micrometer). To verify our calibration algorithm, the calibrated results of MAIS sensor was used to derive the ground reflectances. The accuracy of reflectance retrieval is about 8.5% in the spectral range of 0.4 to 1.2 micrometer, i.e., the uncertainty of derived near-nadir reflectances is within 0.01 - 0.05 in reflectance unit at ground reflectance between 3% and 50%. The distinguishing feature of the ground-based measurements, which will be paid special attention in this paper, is that obtaining simultaneously the reflectance factors of the calibration target, atmospheric optical depth, and water vapor abundance from the same one set of measurement data by only one suit of instruments. The analysis indicates that the method presented here is suitable to the quantitative analysis of imaging spectral data in China.