18 December 1998 Comparison of single- and dual-exposure phase-shift mask approaches for polygate patterning
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Abstract
Single, multi-phase, and dual, 'hidden-shifter,' phase shift masks are compared via simulation and experiment in terms of line-end patterning fidelity and printability of phase defects. Four phase mask line-ends bend through focus while 'hidden-shifter' line-ends show acceptable performance. For a given phase difference, phase defects are found to be more severe than phase errors in terms of resist CD variations. Phase defect printability is highest at positive defocus. For a typical process window, 60 degree phase defects as small as 100 nm may cause unacceptable CD variations.
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Richard E. Schenker, "Comparison of single- and dual-exposure phase-shift mask approaches for polygate patterning", Proc. SPIE 3546, 18th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, (18 December 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.332832; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.332832
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