This panel discussion was focused on the key issues on mask fabrication for 0.18 micrometer rule devices and beyond. The requirements for mask fabrication specifications from the logic and DRAM device manufacturers, and the limits and key issues for mask technologies from the mask suppliers and the equipment suppliers were presented and discussed. The CD accuracy, defect inspection, and cost were listed up in the critical requirement list from the device manufacturers. On the other hand, the mask suppliers gave the critical issues such as the capabilities of inspection and repair, dry etching technology, 230 mm reticle, the throughput of mask writers, and so on. According to the revised 1997's SIA roadmap, technologies were pulled-in about 2 years, so that the panelists pointed out some expanded gap between the requirements and current performances. CD uniformity was listed as the most important issue to be improved, and requested CD range was less than 20 nm. Compared with mask suppliers target of 30 nm, there are still some critical issues to overcome to achieve the requested value. In addition to the improvement of equipment and process, the studies of metrology, specification clarification, and error budget analysis were required for action items.