18 December 1998 Mechanical distortions in advanced photomasks
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Finite element (FE) models have been developed to determine mechanical distortions produced by photomask blank fabrication. The fabrication process involves the deposition of stressed thin films and the removal of parts of those films, the latter of which is referred to as pattern transfer. By creating a model of the substrate with thin layers associated with the mask fabrication process, then by prestressing these layers and simulating pattern transfer, the resulting out-of-plane displacements (OPD) and in-plane distortions (IPD) can be identified. Pattern-specific, global distortions induced during pattern transfer have been calculated for both dark and light field masks.
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Andrew R. Mikkelson, Roxann L. Engelstad, Edward G. Lovell, "Mechanical distortions in advanced photomasks", Proc. SPIE 3546, 18th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, (18 December 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.332852; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.332852

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