A theoretical analysis of amplifier on Er-doped LiNbO3 monomode waveguide is presented. The software package is implemented to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The modeling is built on the base of two-level energy system neglecting ESA, and the calculation is carried on forward pumping for single pass configuration.
"Numerical study of gain of Er3+-doped LiNbO3 waveguide amplifier", Proc. SPIE 3551, Integrated Optoelectronics II, (12 August 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.317965; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.317965