The paper covers an issue of optical polarimetric method for temperature measurement based on the use of a laser autocollimation polarimeter and a sensitive birefringent plate. The sensor works in the following manner. The linear polarized probe beam of the polarimeter illuminates the sensitive element which reflects the radiation backward. The sensitive element result in a phase shift between the beam polarization components which value is proportional to the element temperature. The autocollimation polarimeter determines this phase shift and enables to calculate the temperature value. The distance between the polarimeter an the sensitive element may change from 0 to 100m. The use precisely of the polarization properties of light makes it possible to decrease substantially the effect of beam attenuation on the measurement errors in case where the radiation passes through smoked or dusty space. Small size of the sensitive crystal plate provides rather fast reaction of the sensor to temperature variation in the medium. The basic expression that describes the operation of the system are presented. It is shown that with the use of a quartz plate 1.912mm thick the device makes possible to determine values of temperature in the range of 0 to + 180 degrees C.