Optometry is a branch of science whose roots are in optics development as well as in physiology development. Among Polish scholars, whose names are firmly engraved in the history of optometry, two names should be mentioned first, they are Witelo (1237 - 1290) and Majer (1808 - 1899). Contemporary optometry began around the turn of the 19th and 20th century in the United States of America where some states erected legal regulations for those opticians who were performing refractions. Since 1993 optometry has been defined by the World Council of Optometry as a health care profession which is autonomous, educated and regulated (licensed/registered). Nevertheless, the question arises: Is optometry a separate part of science or is it only a set of practical procedures useful in vision care? In other words: does optometry have a system of definitions, laws and hypothesis with such logical interrelations that all less general statements may be derived from the most general? Even at this moment the system is not fully developed, yet we can say that optometry is a set of statements important and enough proved to be taught at the university level, being a category by itself and being sufficiently rich to be a subject for teaching as separate discipline.