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15 July 1999 Modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond lasers
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Refractive index modification in optical multimode fibers was firstly demonstrated, as a fabrication method of double cladding structure, using plasma channeling excited by a high intensity femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. The induced refractive index modification in a pure silica multimode fiber with 100/110 micrometers core/cladding diameter was reached to the length of approximately 9-10 mm from the end of optical fiber with the diameters ranging form 5 to 8 micrometers at more than input intensity of 1.5 X 1012 W/cm2. It had graded refractive index profile that was a symmetric form from the center of a multimode fiber and the maximum values of refractive index change was 1.6 X 10-2. According to the ESR spectroscopic measurement, it was observed that the concentration of defect of SiE center was heavily increased in refractive index modification refer to that of non-modification region. It was suggested that the defect was induced by the multiphoton absorption process through plasma channeling. Near-field pattern and beam intensity profile of a modified multimode fiber showed that bulk modification played a role as a double cladding structure. The fabrication method of double cladding structure in the end of multimode fiber can be useful tool for mode converter and single-mode connector in the fields of optical communication and optical sensor.
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Sung-Hak Cho, Hiroshi Kumagai, Katsumi Midorikawa, and Minoru Obara "Modification in optical fibers using high-intensity femtosecond lasers", Proc. SPIE 3618, Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing IV, (15 July 1999);

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