29 April 1999 Short-wavelength bottom-emitting VCSELs
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Abstract
The fabrication and performance of selectively oxidized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes which emit through transparent GaP substrates is reported. Emission through the substrate is advantageous for many VCSEL configurations, such as for the incorporation of optical elements in the substrate or flip-chip integration to microelectronic circuitry. The short wavelength bottom- emitting VCSELs are fabricated by wafer fusion using an inert gas low temperature annealing process. The electrical characteristics of n- and p-type GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/GaP wafer bonded interfaces have been examined to optimize the annealing temperature. A significant reduction of the current-voltage characteristics of the VCSELs bonded to GaP substrates has been achieved whereby the bottom-emitting VCSELs show similar threshold voltage as compared to top- emitting lasers.
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Kent D. Choquette, Jonathon S. Barton, Kent M. Geib, Andrew A. Allerman, Jana Jo Hindi, "Short-wavelength bottom-emitting VCSELs", Proc. SPIE 3627, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers III, (29 April 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.347107; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.347107
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