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7 April 1999 Epitaxial growth of HgCdTe 1.55-μm avalanche photodiodes by molecular beam epitaxy
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Abstract
Separate absorption and multiplication avalanche photodiode (SAM-APD) device structures, operating in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range, have been fabricated in the HgCdTe material system by molecular-beam epitaxy. These HgCdTe device structures, which offer an alternative technology to existing III-V APD detectors, were grown on CdZnTe(211)B substrates using CdTe, Te, and Hg sources with in situ In and As doping. The alloy composition of the HgCdTe layers was adjusted to achieve both efficient absorption of IR radiation in the 1.1 - 1.6 micrometer spectral range and low excess-noise avalanche multiplication. To achieve resonant enhancement of hole impact ionization from the split-off valence band, the Hg1-xCdxTe alloy composition in the gain region of the device, x equals 0.73, was chosen to achieve equality between the bandgap energy and spin-orbit splitting. The appropriate value of this alloy composition was determined from analysis of the 300 K bandgap and spin-orbit splitting energies of a set of calibration layers, using a combination of IR transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. MBE-grown APD epitaxial wafers were processed into passivated mesa-type discrete device structures and diode mini-arrays using conventional HgCdTe process technology. Device spectral response, dark current density, and avalanche gain measurements were performed on discrete diodes and diode mini- arrays on the processed wafers. Avalanche gains in the range of 30 - 40 at reverse bias of 85 - 90 V and array-median dark current density below 2 X 10-4 A/cm2 at 40 V reverse bias have been demonstrated.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Terence J. de Lyon, B. Baumgratz, G. R. Chapman, E. Gordon, Andrew T. Hunter, Michael D. Jack, John E. Jensen, W. Johnson, Blaine D. Johs, Kim Kosai, W. Larsen, Greg L. Olson, M. Sen, and Burt Walker "Epitaxial growth of HgCdTe 1.55-μm avalanche photodiodes by molecular beam epitaxy", Proc. SPIE 3629, Photodetectors: Materials and Devices IV, (7 April 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.344562
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