13 April 1999 Circular-grating surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical interconnects
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Abstract
Circular grating surface emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers exhibit extremely small divergence angles and moderately high output power levels which makes them an attractive candidate for free-space interconnects. Computational simulations are used to model the observed results and assist in the design of new functionality such as focusing and beam shaping. Numerical analysis of the coupled mode equations for DBR lasers and free-space propagation of the emitted field have been performed. Surface emission is realized through grating outcoupling provided by a second order grating while feedback is accomplished with an inner annulus consisting of either a first order or second order grating. These gratings are written using electron beam lithography (EBL) and subsequently etched using ECR-RIE. The flexibility of the EBL process enables a variety of different grating designs to be created on a single sample and subsequently compared during device testing.
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R. Scott Penner, R. Scott Penner, Ravil Latipov, Ravil Latipov, Hui Luo, Hui Luo, Mahmoud Fallahi, Mahmoud Fallahi, } "Circular-grating surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical interconnects", Proc. SPIE 3632, Optoelectronic Interconnects VI, (13 April 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.344623; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.344623
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