19 May 1999 Computational expressionism, or how the role of random () is changing in computer art
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The creative process can be described as a continuous feedback loop between the material and an artist's decision making process. A skill can be described as knowledge of a material that allows making more informed decisions and more controlled interactions. As the artists attains a deeper knowledge of a material, the cognitive process involved in creation diverges from technical considerations and concerns itself more with meaning an depression. With computation, the creative process is better described as an evaluative process. Computers allow a multitude of stored copies and variations and also permit the visual artist to create many compositions. The artists may subsequently choose the most appealing among them, refining procedures and algorithms through an evaluative process of trial and error. The traditional relationship between the artist and the computer has been one of artists exercising visual judgement in light of manipulation of material. In this paper, we contrast the extensive use of randomness with a more controlled expression given advances in our modeling of human vision and of imagin system. The context for this discussion is computational expressionism, an exploration of computational drawing that redefines the concept of lines and compositions for the digital medium.
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Joanna Maria Berzowska, Walter R. Bender, "Computational expressionism, or how the role of random () is changing in computer art", Proc. SPIE 3644, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IV, (19 May 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.348458; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.348458

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