We differentiate a cognitive branch of the visual system from a sensorimotor branch with the Roelofs, effect, a perception that a target's position is biased in the direction opposite the offset of a surrounding frame. Previous research left the possibility that accurate motor responses to a perceptually mislocated target might be mediated by oculomotor fixation of the target. Subjects performed judging and jabbing tasks to probe cognitive and motor system representations respectively while engaging in a saccadic task that prevented fixation of the target. Three experiments with an oculomotor distractor task evaluated judging and jabbing responses to the target. Three experiments did not show a Roelofs effect in spite of the prevention of fixation on the target. Motor response did not show a Roelofs effect in spite of the prevention of fixation on the target. Further, a decision about which of two targets to jab does not result in cognitive-system information affect motor response. The Roelofs effect was presented, however, in judging trials that also involved the saccadic task.
"Perception and motor activity: reality is always virtual", Proc. SPIE 3644, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging IV, (19 May 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.348452; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.348452