7 January 1999 OmniPage vs. Sakhr: paired model evaluation of two Arabic OCR products
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Abstract
Characterizing the performance of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems is crucial for monitoring technical progress, predicting OCR performance, providing scientific explanations for the system behavior and identifying open problems. While research has been done in the past to compare performances of two or more OCR systems, all assume that the accuracies achieved on individual documents in a dataset are independent when, in fact, they are not. In this paper we show that accuracies reported on any dataset are correlated and invoke the appropriate statistical technique--the paired model--to compare the accuracies of two recognition systems. Theoretically we show that this method provides tighter confidence intervals than methods used in OCR and computer vision literature. We also proposed a new visualization method, which we call the accuracy scatter plot, for providing a visual summary of performance results. This method summarizes the accuracy comparisons on the entire corpus while simultaneously allowing the researcher to visually compare the performances on individual document images. Finally, we report on the accuracy and speed performances as a function of scanning resolution. Contrary to what one might expect, the performance of one of the systems degrades when the image resolution is increased beyond 300 dpi. Furthermore, the average time taken to OCR a document image, after increasing almost linearly as a function of resolution, suddenly becomes a constant beyond 400 dpi. This behavior is most likely because the OCR algorithm samples the images at resolutions 400 dpi and higher to a standard resolution. The two products that we compare are the Arabic OmniPage 2.0 and the Automatic Page Reader 3.01 from Sakhr. The SAIC Arabic dataset was used for the evaluations. The statistical and visualization methods presented in this article are very general and can be used for comparing accuracies of any two recognition systems, not just OCR systems.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Tapas Kanungo, Gregory A. Marton, Osama Bulbul, "OmniPage vs. Sakhr: paired model evaluation of two Arabic OCR products", Proc. SPIE 3651, Document Recognition and Retrieval VI, (7 January 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.335808; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.335808
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