9 April 1999 Digital watermarking systems with chaotic sequences
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In this paper, we discussed the possibility of introducing chaotic sequences into digital watermarking systems as potential substitutes to commonly used m-sequences. Chaotic sequences have several good properties including the availability of a great number of them, the ease of their generation, as well as their sensitive dependence on their initial conditions. And the quantization does not destroy the good properties. We focus our discussion on the discrete-time dynamical systems operating in chaotic state including Chebyshev maps and logistic maps. Both real valued and binary chaotic sequences are studied and experimented with a digital watermarking system similar to the well-known NEC system. Chaotic sequences are used to modulate information bits into white noise-like wideband watermark signals to be added into the cover objects. The robustness against common signal processing and lossy compression and robust test tools like Stirmark of these systems are tested and compared. Preliminary results are satisfactory. However, in this paper, we only test chaotic sequences scheme with digital images. Tests with other media including video and audio signals will be done at next step. And the good properties of chaos will be further explored, both theoretically and experimentally.
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Hui Xiang, Lindong Wang, Hai Lin, and Jiaoying Shi "Digital watermarking systems with chaotic sequences", Proc. SPIE 3657, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, (9 April 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.344695; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.344695

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