9 April 1999 Marking and detection of text documents using transform-domain techniques
Author Affiliations +
We investigate the use of frequency domain techniques to watermark text documents. A text image is essentially binary and hence contains large high-frequency components. This has several implications on the obtrusiveness and detection performance of frequency domain marking of text images, as illustrated by our extensive experiments. Generally marking is more obtrusive on a text than pictorial image. It almost always creates a 'dirty' background. 'Cleaning' the background by thresholding light grays to white renders the watermark less obtrusive but also sharply reduces the detector response, making it unrobust against noise. Both text and pictorial images seem very susceptible to shifting; this contrasts with extreme robustness against shifting of spatial domain marking through line or word shifting. Finally, we explore the combination of spatial domain marking and frequency domain detection and present preliminary experimental results on the combined approach.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Yong Liu, Yong Liu, Jonathon Mant, Jonathon Mant, Edward Wong, Edward Wong, Steven H. Low, Steven H. Low, } "Marking and detection of text documents using transform-domain techniques", Proc. SPIE 3657, Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, (9 April 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.344682; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.344682


Processing of partial video data for detection of wipes
Proceedings of SPIE (December 16 1998)
Reversible watermarking using two-way decodable codes
Proceedings of SPIE (June 21 2004)
An image watermark tutorial tool using Matlab
Proceedings of SPIE (September 04 2008)
Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video
Proceedings of SPIE (September 15 1996)

Back to Top