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28 April 1999 Nickel-indiffused x,y-cut LiNbO3 optical waveguides
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Proceedings Volume 3666, International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India '98; (1999) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.347915
Event: International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India '98, 1998, New Delhi, India
Abstract
A study of the fabrication process and optical characterization of Ni indiffusion into x and y cut LiNbO3 substrate. The formation of waveguides in air ambient is clean and fast with the diffusion time well away from the Tc and out-diffusion regime of LiNbO3. Optical characterization of the planar waveguides uses prism measurement technique and IWKB method, to establish the diffusion depth, d and the changed in refractive index, (Delta) n. The derived normalized dispersion relation satisfies the Gaussian refractive index profile dispersion for ne (TE) mode along the optical axis and no (TM) mode along both the optical and non-optical axis. For the samples studied, the profile attains that of the Gaussian in the initial waveguide formation and retains the profile for long annealing time and high temperature. The acquired value of (Delta) ne less than or equal to 0.04 and (delta) no less than or equal to 0.02 along the optical axis are comparable to that of Ti:LiNbO3 and the anomaly, (Delta) ne/(Delta) no less than 1, is valid for the non- optical axis only for high temperature annealing and thick Ni samples. The above measurements lead to a derivation for a simple model for the index profile of the channel waveguide, given the film thickness, diffusion time and temperature.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
C. S. Cheung, Edwin Y. B. Pun, and E. Herbert Li "Nickel-indiffused x,y-cut LiNbO3 optical waveguides", Proc. SPIE 3666, International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics: Selected Papers from Photonics India '98, (28 April 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.347915
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