9 June 1999 Portable haptic interface with active functional design
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Haptic rendering is the process of computing and generating forces in response to user interaction with virtual objects. The interaction modality of haptic feedback gains more and more of importance for simulation tasks in virtual environments. However there are only very few portable haptic interfaces, with which the user can experience in a natural way the sensation of force feedback. The scope of this paper is to present a new portable haptic interface using shape memory alloy wires as actuators. Shape memory alloys, and especially the nickel-titanium compositions, offer a number of engineering properties available in no other material. The ability to respond with significant force and motion to small changes in ambient temperature and the capability to convert heat energy into mechanical work provide the designer with a new array of possibilities. Beside some application specific characterization of the actuator material with respect to energy consumption and dynamic behavior for loading, the mechanical layout of the interface is discussed in detail. To realize a light and compact design of the interface, a flexure hinge is considered as an essential part of interface.
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Wilfried J. Elspass, Andreas M. Kunz, "Portable haptic interface with active functional design", Proc. SPIE 3668, Smart Structures and Materials 1999: Smart Structures and Integrated Systems, (9 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.350767; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.350767

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