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28 May 1999 Friction of polymer gels and the potential application as artificial cartilage
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The sliding friction of various kinds of hydrogels has been studied and it was found that the frictional behaviors of the hydrogels do not conform to Amonton's law F equals (mu) W, which well describes the friction of solids. The frictional force and its dependencies of on the load are quite different depending on the chemical structures of the gels, surface properties of the opposing substrates, and the measurement condition. The gel friction is explained in terms of interfacial interaction, either attractive or repulsive, between the polymer chain and the solid surface. According to this model, the frictional is ascribed to the viscous flow of solvent at the interface in the repulsive case. In the attractive case, the force to detach the adsorbing chain from the substrate appears as friction. Surface adhesion between glass particles and gels measured by AFM showed a good correlation with the friction, which support the repulsion- adsorption model proposed by authors.
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Jianping Gong, Yoshiyuki Iwasaki, Gou Kagata, and Yoshihito Osada "Friction of polymer gels and the potential application as artificial cartilage", Proc. SPIE 3669, Smart Structures and Materials 1999: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, (28 May 1999);

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