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28 May 1999 Phase transition behavior of an amphoteric polymer gel
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In order to characterize the deformation behavior of polymer gels for actuators, spatial distribution of deformation of anionic, cationic and amphoteric gels under the electric field was measured. Amphoteric gel was found to be a promising material for inducing symmetric deformation, compared with anionic and cationic gels. It was also found that the deformation of electro-active gels was mainly attributed to interfacial phenomenon between gel-electrode. It can be concluded that by the use of as many amphoteric gel-electrode interfaces as possible will provide us with electro-active polymer gels that are fast responsive, largely deformable with symmetric deformation mode.
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Hirohisa Tamagawa, Suzana Popovic, and Minoru Taya "Phase transition behavior of an amphoteric polymer gel", Proc. SPIE 3669, Smart Structures and Materials 1999: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices, (28 May 1999);

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