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12 July 1999 Crystallographic engineering in high-performance piezoelectric crystals
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Crystallographic engineering, a concept to utilize crystal anisotropy as well as an engineered domain configuration, resulted in significant enhancement in piezoelectric activity for normal ferroelectric BaTiO3 crystals. Electromechanical couplings (k33) approximately 85 percent and piezoelectric coefficients (d33) as high as 500 pC/N, higher or comparable to those of lead based ceramics such as PZT and significantly larger than those of tetragonal BaTiO3 crystals, were detected from crystallographically engineered orthorhombic BaTiO3 crystals. Orthorhombic BaTiO3 phase could be stabilized by Zr-doping at room temperature and enhanced electromechanical coupling (k33) approximately 75 percent was detected also by using crystallographic engineering. Macroscopic symmetry was suggested for <001> poled rhombohedral (3m) and orthorhombic (2mm) crystals, based on the engineered domain configuration.
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Seung Eek Eagle Park, Satoshi Wada, Paul W. Rehrig, Shifang Liu, Leslie Eric Cross, and Thomas R. Shrout "Crystallographic engineering in high-performance piezoelectric crystals", Proc. SPIE 3675, Smart Structures and Materials 1999: Smart Materials Technologies, (12 July 1999);

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