25 June 1999 Imaging capabilities of proximity x-ray lithography at 70-nm ground rules
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Abstract
This paper discusses the resolution capabilities of proximity x-ray lithography (PXRL) system. Exposure characteristics of features designed at 150 nm pitch size: 75 nm dense lines with 1:1 duty ratio, 2D features at 1:1 and 1:2 duty ratios and isolated lines have been studied. Aerial image simulations were compared to the experimental data. Verification of the aerial image model has been accomplished by measurements of exposure windows of 100 nm and 125 nm nested lines. The PXRL aerial image parameter, equivalent penumbra blur, has been determined from the experimental data. Contributions from the synchrotron radiation x-ray source, stepper and the chemically amplified resist to the degradation of the aerial image have been evaluated. Patterning capability of PXRL at 75 nm feature size is compared to projection optics using the optical k1 factor as a common figure of merit. To facilitate the comparison, optical imagin was at pattern sizes currently manufacturable by the mainstream optical tools while the PXRL imaging was at 75 nm pattern size. Requirements for a PXRL system of manufacturing VLSI at 70 nm minimum feature sizes with the critical dimension control better than 10 percent are also discussed.
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Azalia A. Krasnoperova, Robert P. Rippstein, Alex L. Flamholz, Ernst Kratschmer, Shalom Wind, Cameron J. Brooks, Michael J. Lercel, "Imaging capabilities of proximity x-ray lithography at 70-nm ground rules", Proc. SPIE 3676, Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, (25 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.351118; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.351118
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