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14 June 1999 Quantification of wafer printability improvements with scanning steppers using new flatness metrics
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The prevailing models for wafer flatness provide simulation of contact lithography via global flatness parameters such as GBIR, GFLD and GFLR and step-and-repeat lithography. Steppers are modeled as either non-leveling, global leveling or site-by-site leveling. As device critical dimensions shrink and lithographic depth of field is tightened, optical lithography steppers move to new exposure methods. It is imperative, therefore the wafer geometry characterization follows suit in modeling the operation of the new generation steppers. In this work we examine the capabilities of four sets of 200 mm wafers - each from a different manufacturing process - to satisfy the emerging needs of the 180, 150 and 130 nm features. We use both full-site and scanning stepper metrics and our results show increased yield for scanner vs. full site exposure for the same flatness limit. In addition, we show that for full-site exposure, yield is reduced with increasing field length.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Yiorgos Kostoulas, Sahra Berman Tanikawa, David Kallus, and Randal K. Goodall "Quantification of wafer printability improvements with scanning steppers using new flatness metrics", Proc. SPIE 3677, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XIII, (14 June 1999);

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