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11 June 1999 Effect of photoacid generators on the formation of residues in an organic BARC process
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Inorganic or organic bottom antireflective layers (BARL) are extensively integrated into state-of-the-art KrF excimer laser based DUV lithography processes as an effective means to suppress thin film interference effects and to enhance the yield of critical devices produced by the most advanced manufacturing lines. These improvements result primarily from better critical dimension (CD) control on reflective and topographic substrates. The use of organic polymer based bottom antireflective coatings (BARC) offers significant cost of ownership and logistic advantages, which are, however, sometimes traded off by increased particle formation during processing, which requires sophisticated inspection controls or may even give rise to an electrical nonperformance of the devices. For a reduction of the particles both, an optimization of the BARC/photoresist combination, as well as an understanding of the failure mechanism are essential. In this paper, we report about the formation of residues in a specific BARC/photoresist combination observed in the exposed areas after the dry etching process. It was found out that the chemical nature of the photoacid generators (PAG) employed in the chemically amplified photoresist (CAR) has a pronounced influence on the degree of micro particle formation and it is assumed that a photochemical interaction between the PAG and the organic polymer based BARC generates these etch resistant micro residues. More detailed studies have revealed that aromatic onium type PAGs containing photoresists tend to form higher concentrations of residues compared with otherwise identical photoresists employing non-ionic sulfonic acid producing PAGs.
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Koji Shimomura, Yoshimitsu Okuda, Hiroshi Okazaki, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, and Georg Pawlowski "Effect of photoacid generators on the formation of residues in an organic BARC process", Proc. SPIE 3678, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, (11 June 1999);

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