11 June 1999 Mechanism of the Trefonas effect (polyphotolysis) in dissolution inhibition resists
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Polyphotolysis is an important aspect of Novolak- Diazonaphthoquinone resist. It makes for higher lithographic contrast and leads to higher line resolution. We have found that the effect depends on the interaction between phenolic strings emanating from the acceptor groups of PACs meet and connect with each other at quadrupolar nodes. After partial exposure some of the strings are severed from their anchors, but at this point they may be reconnected to still polarized, 'living' strings. In scavenging the severed, 'dead' strings the still 'living' strings increase in length so that, on exposure, two shorter polarized strings are now replaced by a singe longer polarized string. Since inhibition depends on the number of phenolic units taking part in polarized strings, partial exposure of the resist film does not much change the dissolution rate, and only the last stages of exposure produce the dramatic change in dissolution that is reflected in a steep exposure curve and in the higher image contrast of the system.
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Yu-Kai Han, Yu-Kai Han, Arnost Reiser, Arnost Reiser, } "Mechanism of the Trefonas effect (polyphotolysis) in dissolution inhibition resists", Proc. SPIE 3678, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XVI, (11 June 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.350219; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.350219

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