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26 July 1999 Long-term 193-nm laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride
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We have completed a comprehensive evaluation of bulk materials designed for 193-nm lithographic applications. These studies are performed at realistic fluences and pulse counts in excess of 6 X 109. The outcome of the study shows that most calcium fluoride materials should meet the industry lifetime targets for use in lens applications. Some fused silica material also appears to meet lifetime expectations of the industry; however, large grade-to-grade variability in both absorption and laser-induced densification has been observed. We also report on the impact of transient absorption in fused silica on lithographic dose control.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Vladimir Liberman, Mordechai Rothschild, Jan H. C. Sedlacek, Ray S. Uttaro, Allen Keith Bates, and Chris K. Van Peski "Long-term 193-nm laser-induced degradation of fused silica and calcium fluoride", Proc. SPIE 3679, Optical Microlithography XII, (26 July 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.354323;

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