26 July 1999 Effect of titanium doping on the rhombohedral twinning of sapphire
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Abstract
Rhombohedral twinning is responsible for loss of c-axis compressive strength of sapphire at high temperatures. Loss of strength is shown to be due to cracking caused by intersecting twins. Single crystal sapphire was doped with both titanium and titanium ions in concentrations from 0.05 percent wt. to 0.25 percent wt. It is shown that both valence state and concentration of titanium are important is lowing down twin boundary movement and increasing the c-axis compressive strength of sapphire. Titanium doping did not cause any change in thermal conductivity and IR transmission of sapphire.
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Ender Savrun, Cetin Toy, William D. Scott, Daniel C. Harris, "Effect of titanium doping on the rhombohedral twinning of sapphire", Proc. SPIE 3705, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials VI, (26 July 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.354638; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.354638
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