22 March 1999 Evolution of cooperating and competing individuals in a dynamic fitness environment
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Evolving a single individual does not provide a solution when a set of individuals is needed to address different aspects of the problem. Genetic algorithms, however, are typically used to evolve a single individual. We have generalized previous work on modeling the immune system and developed a fitness method that allows a single run of a genetic algorithm to evolve a suite of individuals that compete with each other for fitness and yet cooperate to solve a problem. The method is a form of tournament fitness where individuals compete for fitness with other members of the population. The competitions vary throughout the run, resulting in a changing fitness environment. Experimental results and a preliminary model are described that verify the validity of the approach. We also present explanations for unexpected results from our previous work.
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Rebecca J. Parsons, Rebecca J. Parsons, } "Evolution of cooperating and competing individuals in a dynamic fitness environment", Proc. SPIE 3722, Applications and Science of Computational Intelligence II, (22 March 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.342884; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.342884

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