Fundamentally, the process of refraction is the change of energy, direction or speed of a light beam which is propagating through a medium. In the one case, the change in direction is a continuous bending of the light beam and the subsequent change of speed of the light beam which is propagating through a medium. In the one case, the change in direction is a continuous bending of the light beam and the subsequent change of speed of the light in the medium which is referred to as the index of refraction of the material. In the second case, there is the abrupt change in the index, polarity or phase of the medium which directs the energy out of the medium, or changes the ability of the light to pass through the medium, thereby absorbing the energy. The second case is the technique employed in Optical Refractive Synchronization. The light is passed through a crystal which has the refractive index changed abruptly, and subsequently the electric field, by mixing a radio frequency signal into the crystal which then creates a modulation on to the wavelength of light passing through, or absorbing, in the crystal at the frequency of the radio signal that is to be modulated onto the light beam. This Optical Modulation is performed, therefore, through the application of the refraction of the optical signal.