15 October 1999 Sensor fusion for the detection of land mines
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The detection of buried anti-personnel mines (APMs) is widely considered as a problem which may only be solved with a combination of two or more complementary sensors. We present processing and fusion results obtained from a multisensor data set, acquired with a pulse induction metal detector (MD), a pulsed ultra wide band ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a 3 - 5 (mu) thermal IR camera. Metal detector and GPR sensors were mounted on a rig for optimum control. Various types of soils, clutter objects and burial conditions were recorded. Anti personnel mines included minimum metal mines as well as mines with a significant metal content. We use a special projection to map a 3D GPR data cube, with time or depth as vertical coordinate, into a horizontal plane view 2D image. Object contours are then derived, based on an edge extraction method, followed by an automatic detection of circular shapes with a Hough-transform. In the association step, the stand-off IR image, the metal detector and GPR images and related detections are mapped onto a common cartesian grid on the ground surface. Detection results are fused on a decision level, using a Bayesian approach. Our results indicate that the GPR performance approximately matches that of the metal detector. With both sensors all metallic mines and around 60% of the minimum metal mines were detected. In the case of two false alarms per square meter combined detection probability clearly exceeds single sensor performance and reaches around 80%. Our fusion demonstrator, which incorporates all elements of the processing chain, has been implemented on the basis of MATLABTM.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Martin Fritzsche, Otto Loehlein, "Sensor fusion for the detection of land mines", Proc. SPIE 3752, Subsurface Sensors and Applications, (15 October 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.365723; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.365723

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