15 October 1999 Sensor fusion for the detection of land mines
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The detection of buried anti-personnel mines (APMs) is widely considered as a problem which may only be solved with a combination of two or more complementary sensors. We present processing and fusion results obtained from a multisensor data set, acquired with a pulse induction metal detector (MD), a pulsed ultra wide band ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a 3 - 5 (mu) thermal IR camera. Metal detector and GPR sensors were mounted on a rig for optimum control. Various types of soils, clutter objects and burial conditions were recorded. Anti personnel mines included minimum metal mines as well as mines with a significant metal content. We use a special projection to map a 3D GPR data cube, with time or depth as vertical coordinate, into a horizontal plane view 2D image. Object contours are then derived, based on an edge extraction method, followed by an automatic detection of circular shapes with a Hough-transform. In the association step, the stand-off IR image, the metal detector and GPR images and related detections are mapped onto a common cartesian grid on the ground surface. Detection results are fused on a decision level, using a Bayesian approach. Our results indicate that the GPR performance approximately matches that of the metal detector. With both sensors all metallic mines and around 60% of the minimum metal mines were detected. In the case of two false alarms per square meter combined detection probability clearly exceeds single sensor performance and reaches around 80%. Our fusion demonstrator, which incorporates all elements of the processing chain, has been implemented on the basis of MATLABTM.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Martin Fritzsche, Martin Fritzsche, Otto Loehlein, Otto Loehlein, } "Sensor fusion for the detection of land mines", Proc. SPIE 3752, Subsurface Sensors and Applications, (15 October 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.365723; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.365723

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