23 November 1999 High-power x-ray point source for next-generation lithography
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Abstract
An x-ray power of 2.8 Watts at the 1 nm x-ray lithography wavelength was generated by a copper plasma formed by a single laser beam focused to an intensity of greater than 1014 W/cm2 on a copper tape target. The all solid state BritelightTM YAG laser has 700 ps pulse duration, 300 Hz pulse repetition rate, average power of 75 Watts, and less than 2 times diffraction limited beam quality at the fundamental 1.064 micrometer wavelength. The single beam laser system has a master oscillator, a preamplifier and one power amplifier, all diode pumped. Measurements confirmed negligible copper vapor debris at 8 cm from the laser-plasma source with atmospheric pressure He gas and modest gas flow. The point source x-ray radiation was collimated with either a polycapillary or grazing mirror collimator. The near-parallel beam of x-rays has good divergence both globally (0.5 mrad) and locally (less than 3 mrad), good uniformity (2% achievable goal) and large uniform field size (20 mm X 20 mm full field and 25 mm X 36 mm scanning system). High-resolution lithography was performed for the first time with collimated 1 nm point source x-rays. A power scaling system is being built with eight amplified beams in parallel on the x-ray target, and is expected to achieve 24 - 30 Watts of x-rays. A 16 beam laser plasma x-ray lithography system could achieve a throughput of 24 wafer levels per hour using 300 mm diameter wafers.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
I. C. Edmond Turcu, I. C. Edmond Turcu, Richard Alan Forber, Richard Alan Forber, Robert K. Grygier, Robert K. Grygier, Harry Rieger, Harry Rieger, Michael F. Powers, Michael F. Powers, S. M. Campeau, S. M. Campeau, G. French, G. French, Richard M. Foster, Richard M. Foster, Phillip V. Mitchell, Phillip V. Mitchell, Celestino J. Gaeta, Celestino J. Gaeta, Z. Cheng, Z. Cheng, Jay Burdett, Jay Burdett, David M. Gibson, David M. Gibson, Stephen M. Lane, Stephen M. Lane, Troy W. Barbee, Troy W. Barbee, Stanley Mrowka, Stanley Mrowka, Juan R. Maldonado, Juan R. Maldonado, } "High-power x-ray point source for next-generation lithography", Proc. SPIE 3767, EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, (23 November 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.371118; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.371118
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