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11 November 1999 Quantifying the effects of tool and workpiece surface evolution during microgrinding of optical glasses
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Abstract
CNC grinding technology is increasingly used in the manufacture of precision optical components. Grinding performance is strongly influenced by the interaction of the tool and workpiece surfaces on a microscale, which in turn is influenced by the structure (topography) of the two surfaces. Unfortunately, for tool surfaces in particular, relatively little quantitative information has been available on the nature of the surfaces generated during actual grinding operations. However with the availability of advanced metrology techniques, such as optical profilometry and atomic force microscopy, it is now possible to produce detailed three-dimensional images of tool surfaces and from them to extract detailed quantitative information about the surface and its evolution. In this paper we discuss the use of optical profilometry to quantitatively characterize the surface microstructure (topography) of composite diamond tools during grinding of optical glasses. As an alternative to measuring individual diamond profiles, both the size and shape of the active diamonds on the tool surface may be evaluated by examination of the overall bearing ratio of the surface. This is quicker and has the advantage of avoiding potential bias in the selection of diamonds to be measured. Use of a micro- marker technique to precisely measure bond wear rate from a series of surface images using a micro-marker technique is also demonstrated. Grinding performance is dependent on the process conditions, but is also found to be correlated with the tool's surface structure. Moreover since the tool surface evolves during grinding, a complex relationship between the process and performance is produced. Bond wear is found to play an important role in maintaining grinding performance. Process conditions which produce a steady bond wear rate aid in establishing a quasi-equilibrium state ('self-sharpening') under which grinding performance can be maintained indefinitely.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Toshio Takahashi, Paul D. Funkenbusch, and Jeffrey L. Ruckman "Quantifying the effects of tool and workpiece surface evolution during microgrinding of optical glasses", Proc. SPIE 3782, Optical Manufacturing and Testing III, (11 November 1999); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.369193
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