8 October 1999 Electrochromic properties of Nb2O5 and Nb2O5:X sol-gel coatings (X=Sn, Zr, Li, Ti, Mo)
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Two-layer coatings of Nb2O5 and niobia doped with tin (up to 15 at%), zirconium (up to 15 at%), lithium (up to 15 at%), titanium (up to 30 at%) and molybdenum (up to 30 at%) have been prepared by the sol-gel process and deposited by dip-coating on conductive ITO coated glass (R(open square) equals 10 (Omega) (open square)). They have been sintered in air between 450 degree(s)C and 600 degree(s)C. Their structure, morphology, electrochemical and optical properties (measured in a liquid electrolyte (1 M LiClO4 in PC)) are reported. All systems exhibit electrochromic properties. Those are essentially determined by the structure and the morphology of the layers which can be changed in a controlled manner by the amount of doping and the sintering temperature. After Li+-insertion all amorphous coatings present a brown color, a blue one when the structure is hexagonal and a gray one when the structure is orthorhombic (pure, titanium or molybdenum doped niobia) or monoclinic (Li-doped niobia). Samples with two different structures color either blue or gray.
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Mike Schmitt, Michel Andre Aegerter, "Electrochromic properties of Nb2O5 and Nb2O5:X sol-gel coatings (X=Sn, Zr, Li, Ti, Mo)", Proc. SPIE 3788, Switchable Materials and Flat Panel Displays, (8 October 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.366094; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.366094

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