8 October 1999 Pulse-width modulation effects on fullerene electrochromism
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Thin films of Buckminsterfullerene exhibit a reversible electrochromic effect when electrochemically intercalated with alkali metal or alkali earth ions. The degree of reversibility depends on the ratio of intercalated ions to fullerene molecules, both in the bulk film thickness and in localized stoichiometric gradients. High ratios of ions to fullerenes product films with limited electrochromic reversibility. These films are also soluble in the polar organic electrolyte system, leading to cycling and durability issues. If the intercalating ion current is modulated, rather than continuously applied, improved durability and reversibility result. The relationship of stoichiometric gradients to intercalation ion current density and ion mobility in the fullerene film are considered, as are optimum pulse-widths. Film preparation and electrolyte preconditioning are detailed.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Gregory A. Konesky, Gregory A. Konesky, } "Pulse-width modulation effects on fullerene electrochromism", Proc. SPIE 3788, Switchable Materials and Flat Panel Displays, (8 October 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.365783; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.365783

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