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17 December 1999 Modification of organic interfaces: from molecular level measurements to injection characteristics
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Ultra-violet and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and current- voltage measurements were used to investigate the fundamental mechanisms responsible for the improvement of hole injection between modified indium-tin-oxide (ITO) surfaces and the hole- transport layer (HTL) of an organic light emitting diode. Two ITO surface modification techniques were investigated: oxygen- plasma treatment and deposition of an ultra-thin organic interlayer between the ITO and the HTL. We demonstrate that the improvement in injection is due to an increase in surface work function of ITO mediated by the presence of an oxygen radical in the first case, and to the presence of an intermediate energy level between the ITO Fermi level and the HTL highest occupied molecular orbital in the second.
© (1999) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ian G. Hill, D. Milliron, J. Schwartz, and Antoine Kahn "Modification of organic interfaces: from molecular level measurements to injection characteristics", Proc. SPIE 3797, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices III, (17 December 1999);

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