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14 October 1999 Electro-optic and opto-optic effects in liquid crystal waveguides
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A guided light wave can be modulated by coupling it into a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) waveguide. The FLC, which changes its optical properties under the application of an electric field, acts as active medium. With a carefully chosen aligned configuration, the large change in refractive index induced by the electric field, gives a good contrast ratio in the optical response. The optical and electro- optical properties of liquid crystals can be modified by the propagating light and these effects can be enhanced by the addition of a suitable absorbing dye in the liquid crystal. Thus changes in the guiding conditions of the light can be induced also by the guided light itself.
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Giusy Scalia, David S. Hermann, F. De Marco, Pasquale Mormile, and Giancarlo Abbate "Electro-optic and opto-optic effects in liquid crystal waveguides", Proc. SPIE 3800, Liquid Crystals III, (14 October 1999);

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