20 September 1999 Optical amplification by two-wave mixing in lithium niobate waveguides
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Photorefractive Fe:LiNbO3 planar waveguides have been fabricated by proton exchange method using Fe:LiNbO3 as substrate and benzoic acid as exchange medium. The waveguide has a much larger refractive index increment than a Ti diffused one. Through end-face coupling, a pump beam and a signal beam were injected into the waveguide and the optical amplification properties of the waveguide have been investigated experimentally. The results showed that a hundred fold amplification gain could be obtained in a wide range of grating periods and an amplification gain of 180 was achieved easily. This scheme has potential applications in optical signal processing at not very high incident intensity.
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Hong Xi Zhang, Chan Hin Kam, Yan Zhou, Yuen Chuen Chan, Yee Loy Lam, "Optical amplification by two-wave mixing in lithium niobate waveguides", Proc. SPIE 3801, Photorefractive Fiber and Crystal Devices: Materials, Optical Properties, and Applications V, (20 September 1999); doi: 10.1117/12.363945; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.363945

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