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4 October 1999 Max-mean and max-median filters for detection of small targets
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This paper deals with the problem of detection and tracking of low observable small-targets from a sequence of IR images against structural background and non-stationary clutter. There are many algorithms reported in the open literature for detection and tracking of targets of significant size in the image plane with good results. However, the difficulties of detecting small-targets arise from the fact that they are not easily discernable from clutter. The focus of research in this area is to reduce the false alarm rate to an acceptable level. Triple Temporal Filter reported by Jerry Silverman et. al., is one of the promising algorithms in this are. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of Max-Mean and Max-Median filters in preserving the edges of clouds and structural backgrounds, which helps in detecting small-targets. Subsequently, anti-mean and anti-median operations result in good performance of detecting targets against moving clutter. The raw image is first filtered by max-mean/max-median filter. Then the filtered output is subtracted from the original image to enhance the potential targets. A thresholding step is incorporated in order to limit the number of potential target pixels. The threshold is obtained by using the statistics of the image. Finally, the thresholded images are accumulated so that the moving target forms a continuous trajectory and can be detected by using the post-processing algorithm. It is assumed that most of the targets occupy a couple of pixels. Head-on moving and maneuvering targets are not considered. These filters have ben tested successfully with the available database and the result are presented.
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Suyog D. Deshpande, Meng Hwa Er, Ronda Venkateswarlu, and Philip Chan "Max-mean and max-median filters for detection of small targets", Proc. SPIE 3809, Signal and Data Processing of Small Targets 1999, (4 October 1999);

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